Hugo Nominees 1996
Disclaimer: Some reviews contain spoilers. The following pearls
were written, unless otherwise noted, during the voting period for Hugos
for that year, so I'm sure some of my opinions have softened since then
with the acquisition of greater wisdom. If there is no review, it means
I didn't read the story, mostly because, in those early internet days,
I couldn't find it.
- The Time Ships, Stephen Baxter (HarperPrism)
Everyone's raving about this novel, and it
is good, but I must just be thick because I don't see
what all the fuss is about. The idea of continuing the
story set up by HG Wells in "The Time Machine" is a good
one, but it goes on a little long. The nameless narrator
decides to take another trip to the future, and discovers
it bears no resemblance to the one he visited the first
time. Some interesting ideas about time travel are brought
up and largely sloughed off with double-talk and pseudo-science
("Multiplicities", etc.). When the protagonist travels
back in time to warn his younger self not to build the
time machine at all, I thought this could be interesting
because obviously that is something you shouldn't be doing.
And sure enough he can't change his future, he can only
change a different future, but the further adventures
to the beginnings and ends of creation are mostly hot
air. A good read, but not as deep or as fun as I would
- Brightness Reef, David Brin
For the first time ever I was able to read
all five Hugo nominees before the voting deadline, and
this is the book I saved for last, mostly because it was
the longest, but also because I had the highest expectations
for it. Boy, was I disappointed. What Brin has created
here is a 500-page vignette, told from several different
and extremely alien points of view, that must be fascinating
for those who are into world-building and alien psychology/physiology,
but for those of us who still expect things like narrative
and plot, forget it. This book ties in with the previous
Uplift trilogy, and turns out in the end to be directly
related to those books, such that it is even more meaningless
if you haven't read them. Many was the time I had no idea
what was going on, pages and pages and pages were devoted
to meaningless conversations and up until the last fifty
or so pages virtually all the action happens offstage.
The achievement for Brin is to have created a planet where
several different alien cultures, including humans, peacefully
coexist while in hiding, and by telling it from multiple
points of view he plunges you into the midst of this world
with no explanation from anyone. As I said, some may find
this fun, but I found it maddeningly confusing.
- The Terminal Experiment, Robert J. Sawyer (serialized
as 'Hobson's Choice', Analog, Mid-December 1994-March 1995)
This hybrid novel is a well executed mix of
sf and your typical suspense/thriller bestseller, along
the lines of Robin Cook or Robert Ludlum. Unusual also
in being so overtly Canadian in setting, Sawyer gives
us really two plots: the discovery of the "soulwave",
proof of some form of life after death; and an electronic
clone of the main character that commits two murders.
Sawyer pushes the right buttons, and there is a good amount
of genuine suspense. Unlike Nancy Kress, who would probably
be more interested in the social implications of the technology,
Sawyer's societal upheaval happens in a series of news
clippings appended to the occasional chapter. Flaws come
along when you start to look at the plot, however, and
notice how there would have been no plot if the characters
weren't all so consistently stupid (or at least short-sighted).
Juggling two plots, which basically have very little to
do with each other, also seems almost accidental, as though
Sawyer saw the book shifting in mid-stream and just went
with the flow. While I wouldn't call these quibbles minor,
I admit they didn't detract from the impetus Sawyer creates,
and at the end of most every chapter, you find yourself
thinking, "oh, I'll just read one more."
- The Diamond Age, Neal Stephenson
Lately it seems that cyberpunk is getting bored
with itself, such that in novels like Gibson's Virtual
Light from a couple of years ago, the reader gets
a minimum of detail and ends up with a very thin, cypher-like
story. This is emphatically not the case with The Diamond
Age, which is one of those books where you can't help
but marvel at the audacity of the author in attempting
to do what he does. Stephenson's blend of oriental culture,
nanotechnology, neo-Victorians, quest novel, techno-thriller,
and sections reminiscent of The Neverending Story
make for a fascinating milieu. While the reader is plunged
immediately into this culture with all the miniscule details
unexplained, the setting evolves as the story does at
just the right pace. The first half is the more frenetic,
"punky" one, and then the second half changes tone completely
to more introspection and philosophy among some of the
principle characters. The train of thought is so convoluted
as to occasionally get lost for awhile, but always picks
back up and makes this book the most entertaining of this
- Remake, Connie Willis
A pleasantly brief novel by Willis that shows
us a near future Hollywood where there are no new movies,
only digitized remakes with famous stars of the past spliced
into already familiar plots. The basic premise revolves
around the protagonist's obsession for a girl who wants
to dance in the movies, even though there are no new movies
being made and certainly none with dancing. Willis's references
to old movies, particularly Fred Astaire and other dancers,
is encyclopedic. Her trademark frenetic pace and multi-conversation
dialog is largely absent, and that is actually rather
refreshing. The middle book of a triptych of under 200
page novels, this could be Willis's ideal length (unlike
the bloated Doomsday Book). I was pleasantly surprised
by this one.
- "Fault Lines", Nancy Kress (Asimov's,
August 1995) download from
A well-told but fairly routine story for Ms. Kress, which I didn't think was as good as her non-nominated novelette, "Evolution", although they are equally bleak in their representations of the future. By combining pharmacological sf with the mystery format, Kress gives us the impression that the future of medicine is dreary indeed. This story follows an ex-cop as he uncovers the truth about a Prozac-like drug that, surprise, leads people to kill themselves. Not all the loose ends are explored nor are they tied up, and subplots are thrown in without much if any connection to the main story. Feels like it was written in a hurry. From another author, this would be fine, but from Kress I expect better.
- "A Man of the People", Ursula K. Le Guin (Asimov's,
Le Guin's two entries this year are both more memorable than last year's three, although neither are as good as "Ether OR", which wasn't nominated. But they are not memorable enough to get my vote. This and the other story are basically character studies. There is something of a linear narrative, although not really a plot per se, concerning the life and times of the character referred to in the title. After growing up on a mostly backward planet, he leaves behind everyone he knows to travel to the main planet of Hain, and the trip is such that by the time he arrives there everyone back home has long since died. That isn't the point of the story, of course, because Le Guin's stories generally don't have a point. But unlike last year's "Solitude", at least this one is readable and enjoyable on its own level.
- "A Woman's Liberation", Ursula K. Le Guin (Asimov's,
I did vote to nominate this one, and it was a pretty sure thing to get on the ballot even if I hadn't. This is the better of the two Le Guin entries, and not a bad story in its own right, although once again it suffers from so-what syndrome. The advantage here is signficantly more narrative and less ruminating about the character's surroundings. The female character referred to in the title grows up essentially as a slave, is present when the slaves are freed, and of course ends up in worse shape than before, but eventually makes it to another planet where she ends up with the main character of "A Man of the People". Le Guin's future societies seem to break down mostly into planets where women are subjugated and planets where men are subjugated, and this harping does get kind of old after awhile. There is nothing new here from a "gender" perspective, but the story is mildly engaging and reads more quickly than most other stories of hers of this length.
- "Bibi", Mike Resnick and Susan Shwartz (Asimov's,
More anthropological sf from Resnick & Co. This one deals with an HIV-positive protagonist who has gone to Uganda to help the zillions of Africans who are suffering the same fate. There he discovers a local legend of an old woman who has been known to cure people of the disease. The authors make a vivid portrayal of living with HIV, and all that comes with it. What's interesting is the sf in the story is nearly fantasy, because they don't bog down the narrative with lengthy molecular biological explanations of how "Bibi" is able to cure the people she comes in contact with - it just happens. I did like this story a lot, and it was actually number 6 on my list to nominate, but I could only nominate five.
- "The Death of Captain Future", Allen Steele (Asimov's,
October 1995) download from
I don't know why, but this novella is really lots of
fun, in that it takes your basic space opera plot and updates
it, told from Steele's sardonic first-person wise-acre point of
view. The fact that it pays homage to Captain Future, featured
in the Retro-Hugo-nominated Danger Planet, makes it a particularly
fitting entry in this year's nominations. But in Steele's hands,
Captain Future is a pretender to the title, without any heroic
qualities whatsoever. I think this story makes a neat juxtaposition
of the mid-40's mentality towards science and space and the people
who would populate it, and the significantly more jaded and realistic
perspective we have now. Space travel isn't now and isn't going
to be like Captain Future, we now know, and even if it was, people
like Captain Future wouldn't exist anyway. Fast-paced and well-executed,
this story gets my vote.
- "Luminous", Greg Egan (Asimov's, September
1995) download from Fictionwise
Possibly the most neglected branch of science in science fiction is pure mathematics, and Egan shows us why in this tortuously inventive foray into the theoretical branches of math. The real-world scenario develops around international espionage, which of course would be involved once a link has been discovered into an alternate system of mathematics that could cause a breakdown of our own branch. Certainly the most original story of this type I remember seeing recently.
- "TAP", Greg Egan (Asimov's, November
Egan's second entry is better in some respects, worse in others. TAP refers to a brain-implant chip that allows people a higher level of communication. Somebody with the implant has died, and it's up to the narrator to figure out if she was murdered by the chip itself or by someone manipulating it externally. The mystery plot is fine until he starts to explain the motives of the perpetrators, and even on a second reading I was fairly mystified by exactly what happened in the end. No real suspense is involved, so there isn't that hook to fall back on. Interesting, but ultimately kind of tepid.
- "Think Like a Dinosaur", James Patrick Kelly (Asimov's,
June 1995) download from
I liked this story better after the second reading. A brief, to-the-point, more old-fashioned tale about the guy who runs the equipment set up by the dinosaur-esque aliens to shunt people from Earth to their planet, giving up their physical bodies in the process in exchange for one at the other end. Somewhat atypical of Kelly's usual cyberpunky style, this one introduces setting, conflict, a few characters, and a "Cold Equations" sort of conclusion, all very well executed.
- "When the Old Gods Die", Mike Resnick (Asimov's,
April 1995) download from
There's still one more of these Kirinyaga stories left that could be nominated next year, but this penultimate one is probably my favorite, as it deals with the breakdown of the Utopia that the original settlers have worked so hard to perfect. The arrival of an offworld medical doctor, who can cure everyone's afflictions easier and faster than the narrator, leads the people to question the nature of a utopia. A very thought-provoking story, and this would have been a better end to a series I'll be sorry to see go.
- "The Good Rat", Allen Steele (Analog,
Mid-December 1995) download
The lone Analog entry in this category is an odd one: told
in partial sentences from the point of view of a human "lab rat"
(after animals have finally been completely banned from all product
testing), it details the day to day events of one particular project
for which the narrator has contracted. This project is not out
of the ordinary from his perspective, and he's just doing his
job, not really wrestling with how things got to be the way they
are or whether they are better or worse than they were. Was this
nominated because LACon III's mascot is the rat? Well told, but
not much of a point, is there?
- "Must and Shall", Harry Turtledove (Asimov's,
An interesting backdrop where Lincoln was assassinated in 1864 instead of 1865, and the North was much harsher to the reconstructed South. Now, during World War II, the protagonist shows up in "occupied" New Orleans to investigate claims that the Nazis are smuggling arms to the Rebels. The story as it develops is less interesting, though, in that once you've established your alternate history setting, things proceed pretty much as they would if this was Casablanca or Paris or wherever. Turtledove has really put this subgenre on the map, but this story taken out of its larger context isn't much to look at.
- SHORT STORY
- "TeleAbsence", Michael A. Burstein (Analog,
July 1995) download from
This first published story by Burstein shows promise, but this is the just-happy-to-be-here entry of this category. Dealing with a student who sneaks into a classroom in a good school to escape the dangerous one in his own neighborhood, the story is quite readable but otherwise unremarkable, and the ending is a little ambiguous, with a sort of gratuitous twist. Burstein is popular in fan circles in the northeast, so his nomination seems more motivated by popularity than talent.
- "Life on the Moon", Tony Daniel (Asimov's,
A brief, somewhat touching story of two people with divergent careers, one of whom is called to the moon to develop the architecture for the first lunar city. Told from the point of view of the poet who stays behind, the story is punctuated with poetry written as the short scenes develop. Daniel has written a number of stories that I've liked, and it is good to see him recognized with this nomination. Although there isn't much plot, there are several ideas bubbling behind the surface, and the shory is almost too short to contain them all.
- "A Birthday", Esther M. Friesner (Fantasy and Science Fiction, August 1995)
Friesner, known predominately for fantasy and funny hamster stories, surprises with a tight, angry story concerning a future in which women who have had abortions are forced to watch computer-generated versions of the babies they otherwise would have had grow up every time they use any sort of terminal screen, particularly ATMs. Although the idea is slightly farfetched and she waits a little too long to stop referring to the situation and start explaining it, this is probably the best story in the bunch.
- "The Lincoln Train", Maureen F. McHugh (Fantasy and Science Fiction, April 1995)
McHugh's only entry on this year's ballot is a worthy contender from an alternate history where Lincoln was shot but not killed, and the South's reconstruction is much more harsh. The problem with alternate history is that other than the fact they are in an alternate history they aren't science fiction, but McHugh's prose is so evocative and effortless that I don't care. She hints around her milieu much like Friesner does, so that a second reading makes things clearer, but this is a well-crafted entry with more maturity than Friesner, just not as much punch.
- "Walking Out", Michael Swanwick (Asimov's,
As if more evidence was needed that the short story category was at least in some part a popularity contest, witness this entry by Swanwick. The shortest story in the group, it's practically a PKD pastiche involving the protagonist wanting to get out of the city and move to the country, only to be told at the end that there is no city or country because an asteroid bombardment wiped out most of civilization and he and the rest of humanity's survivors are ekeing out their existence on the moon. That this was nominated and Ben Bova's "Life as We Know It" was not is criminal.
Retro-Hugo nominees 1946
- The Mule, Isaac Asimov (Astounding, November-December
1945; also published as Part II of Foundation and Empire)
What became the latter two-thirds of Foundation
and Empire is quite a bit different in style from the first
third. Where "Dead Hand" is frought with existential pre-destination,
and told in somewhat choppy, shifting viewpoints, "The Mule" is
a more convential narrative form, central to one idea: what would
it take for Seldon to be wrong. The artifice of the unseen character
of the Mule is the central element around which the novel is built,
and Asimov finally admits that psycho-history can be upset by
one random event. Given the number of years the Foundation was
supposed to preserve civilization, it seems the odds for this
random event occurring are fairly short, but that's okay. The
Mule sweeps through the remnants of the Empire, then in one fell
swoop crushes the Foundation. The leaders of the Foundation don't
seem to have much of an idea of what they're supposed to be doing,
and immediately give up the ship on the basis of a rumored Second
Foundation, which is so secret nobody anywhere knows whereit is,
or even if it exists. The Mule could be Hitler, I suppose, but
endowing him with essentially supernatural powers to control people's
emotions seems a bit forced. Still a classic part of a classic
series, though. The scene where Seldon's image starts talking
about a crisis other than the one they're in the middle of is
one of my favorites.
- Red Sun of Danger, Edmond Hamilton (writing as Brett Sterling)
(Startling Stories, Spring 1945; also published
as Danger Planet, by Brett Sterling)
I didn't really know anything about Captain Future until I read Allen Steele's novella mentioned above, and after that I still didn't know too much. So this was kind of a fun introduction to the whole '40's space opera subgenre that everybody talks about but nobody reads. We would like to think that stories like Destiny Times Three and World of Null-A would have been nominated for Hugos if they had existed back in '45, but I suspect that more of these kind of stories would have been the ones to ultimately show up on the ballot, if only because there were so many of them. This one is a routine but well-told tale of Mr. Future and his Futuremen as they race to the planet Roo to save the universe's supply of vitron, the anti-aging drug that comes from there. Along the way there are the expected assortment of disguises, traitors, plans gone wrong, and even HP Lovecraft's "Old Ones" make an appearance (Hamilton calls them the "Kangas", but the relationship between "Kanga" and "Roo" is never addressed). Wish I had read this when I was ten, which in a way I suppose I did.
- That Hideous Strength, C.S. Lewis (Bodley Head; Macmillan; etc.)
- Destiny Times Three, Fritz Leiber (Astounding, March-April 1945;
Galaxy Novels; Dell)
A brief, sort of expressionist novel that is very interesting within the context in which it was written, with World War II still raging, perhaps more interesting than it was at the time it first appeared. It turns out a race of super-types have been manipulating earth's history and have diverged it into three separate realities. When they see which one turns out the best, they destroy the other two. But it turns out they're not destroyed, and the more aggressive realities figure out how to invade the more passive, yet "better" reality. Is this a warning against the isolationism that let Germany build up in the first place? An indictment against Naziism in general? The narrative isn't clear-cut enough to provide any answers, but it is an intriguing story that probably merits multiple readings.
- The World of Null-A, A.E. Van Vogt (Astounding, August-October 1945;
revised for book publication by Simon and Schuster, etc.)
This is the classic that everyone loves to hate, and I can see why.
Similar in some ways to Leiber's entry, Van Vogt gives us a headlong
narrative that is thoroughly disjointed, confusing, elliptic,
and downright muddled. And yet it is oddly fascinating in its
own right. The protagonist, Gosseyn, finds himself on a quest
for identity, after his presumed past is quite easily proven false.
This quest leads him to discover an underground movement against
the precepts of "null-A" or non-Aristotelianism, whatever that
is. It develops that he is a major player in this struggle, without
even realizing it. There is a definite sense of wonder to the
whole thing, not so much on a cosmological scale as a metaphysical
one, and just like there are three destinies in Leiber's book,
there are three Gosseyn's in this one. This is a revised version,
which makes you wonder how much more of a mess the original was,
but it would bear some re-readings, and some further early Van
Vogt perusals to assist in a potentially hopeless quest to make
sense of this book.
- "Dead Hand", Isaac Asimov (Astounding,
April 1945; also published as Part I of Foundation and Empire)
This is surprisingly taut Asimov prose, a definite
reminder that the guy could write in spite of everything he produced
the last 15 or so years of his life. The Foundation has survived
three "Seldon crises", but always with the help of brilliant leadership.
Now there are no leaders, and the Foundation has brought enough
attention to itself that it is dragged into war with the Empire
it was created to replace. For such a large subject, Asimov handles
it in a surprisingly short space, and like the previous tests
of psychohistory this one turns out to have a forgone conclusion
regardless of what the protagonists did or didn't do. Hadn't read
this in 15 years or more, and it was kind of fun, although the
politics and intrigue is enough to make your head spin, not much
removed from the Van Vogtian morass of World of Null-A.
- "Giant Killer", A. Bertram Chandler (Astounding,
A well-told story that maybe wasn't quite so obvious fifty years ago. Chandler sets up a society of mutants who live in fear of the "Giants", but you know right away by the lack of description of either race that there's something going on here. But he gives just the right amount of detail and delineates a very alien-seeming society before it turns out at the end that the mutants are rats in the cargo hold of a space freighter, and the Giants are the humans of course. These aren't just ordinary rats because they carry spears and everything, but other than the supposed revelation at the end there doesn't seem to be much of a point to the story. Still, it's very engagingly told and if it is the archetype of this style of story it is worthy of being remembered at least for that.
- Animal Farm, George Orwell (Secker and Warburg;
Harcourt Brace; etc.)
Of course this is a classic, and of course it is better than
the other entries in this category. But it's not science fiction. Just
because all the animals talk and the pigs walk upright doesn't mean that
this story would have been nominated if there had been Hugos in 1945.
Having never read it before, though, I thought it still had a tremendous
impact, particularly towards the end as the society of the farm starts
to revert to the same form of oppression that had existed at the beginning,
but now their own members are the ones doing the oppressing. As satire
or allegory it's obvious, but given that it was written during a period
where America thought Russia was wonderful, it must have come as quite
a shock. The major impact for me is that Orwell gets the reader to empathize
with the animals, and then you realize that they are just stand-ins for
real human beings that went through this same kind of life under Stalin.
The changing commandments on the wall is quite chilling, as well.
- I Remember Lemuria, Richard S. Shaver (Amazing,
March; Venture Books)
- "Pi in the Sky", Fredric Brown (Thrilling
Wonder Stories, Winter 1945)
Brown's conversational style serves him well in this tale that can only be described as Sense-of-Wonder Interruptus. A few stock characters notice that the stars are starting to move much faster than they really should be. Questions about our notions of physics and the vastness of the cosmos are wrestled with until it is revealed that an eccentric inventor has come up with a way to make the stars look like they're moving (which is never, of course, explained adequately) until they form a giant advertising slogan in the sky for his company, albeit with his name spelled wrong. Yes, it's silly, but well told and just long enough. You'll notice this story was not from Astounding.
- "Into Thy Hands", Lester del Rey (Astounding,
A jumpy, confusing story about three robots left behind after the destruction of humanity who end up recreating the human race and acting out the roles of Adam & Eve. Del Rey said that this story was originally twice as long, but Campbell made him cut it down so it would fit in a particular issue, and it shows. I had to read most of it twice to figure out what was going on at all. The idea of robots taking their programming to literal extremes was apparently a novel one at the time. The Adam robot gets religion, but because his model number is SA-10 he thinks he is "Satan". The other robot who was chartered to protect mankind has to literally recreate humanity after they die out from war. Lots going on, most of it barely coherent, does this mean it's a classic?
- "First Contact", Murray Leinster (Astounding,
A few categories in the Retro-Hugos have what Bruce Pelz and others characterized as "800-pound gorillas", that is that one of the nominees is far and away the favorite in its category. John Campbell is the 800-pound gorilla of the Best Editor category, and this story is for novelettes. Although one might question the likelihood of the resolution of this tale of deep space first contact between two races who don't want to reveal their home planets to each other, it does set up a memorable premise (which Leinster points out over and over was "something no one ever considered", which seems somewhat self-congratulatory). In this non-computerized future, destroying all evidence of your homeworld's location may have been easier, or maybe not, but I'm willing to suspend disbelief and enjoy the story on its own merits, although I did correctly guess the ending.
- "The Piper's Son", Lewis Padgett (Astounding,
Reviewed 5/03: Probably
the most thought-provoking story in this category, at least when
it was published, is the first of the "Baldy" stories
which were anthologized and fixed-up for years afterwards, and
deals with the relative new idea of genetic mutation as a result
of nuclear war, which in this case makes certain people telepathic.
The ramifications of having a small but significant fraction of
the population able to read people's minds is explored, and given
the plot of the protagonist's son, who as he gets older starts
to exhibit certain antisocial tendencies which are thought to
be caused by being the child of a telepath, but turn out to have
more sinister origins. Mutants have of course been done to death
since then, but this gets beyond the "wouldn't it be cool"
approach into the more realistic sociological implications, long
before the X-Men ever came along.
- "The Mixed Men", A.E. van Vogt (Astounding,
January 1945; revised for book publication in The Mixed Men (Gnome);
cut version titled Mission to the Stars)
- SHORT STORY
- "The Waveries", Fredric Brown (Astounding,
If a story's likelihood of winning can be predicated on the number of times it has been reprinted, then this one wins by default. Not having read much Brown at all, I was surprised by his premise: the aliens that come to earth are actually sentient radio waves that consume all electrical impulses. That in itself is kind of fun, but Brown extrapolates from this that the world ends up in a veritable utopia afterwards, as people can't waste their time listening to those darn radios anymore and take up community theatre and reading and all sorts of other lofty pursuits. And the air is cleaner because there is no internal combustion engine (although he doesn't say anything about coal). I like the first idea better, which must have been very intriguing in its day, that those radio waves we've been producing for (then) 40 years are the first indication to the outside universe that something's going on here, and what if they attract somebody's attention enough to come investigate?
- "Uncommon Sense", Hal Clement (Astounding,
Clement's folksyness comes through in this My-Problem-And-How-I-Solved-It tale about a stranded spaceman who makes ten story-pages worth of observations of an alien race before killing enough of them to unstrand himself. Very xenologically incorrect, but given the date of the story still kind of fun. Clement's clunky, flat prose barely intrudes because he is so singularly dedicated to the task at hand. A classic example of this type of story, but a classic in its own right? Maybe, maybe not.
- "Correspondence Course", Raymond F. Jones (Astounding,
Jones is probably not remembered the most for writing the original story for "This Island Earth", but he also wrote a bunch of
other novels and some short fiction before fading into obscurity in the sixties. This story is a very nicely wrought, appropriately
evocative tale about a disabled war veteran (presumably from the present time), who decides on a whim to take a correspondence course
in a new form of power generation. He becomes curious enough about the company providing the course that he travels to their home
office, only to find that no one knows anything about it. A second trip reveals there's more to the course provider than he would've
imagined, resulting in a personal kind of "Childhood's End" for the main character. Some of the motivations are a little forced, and
the double meaning of the title is not really that significant, but still this is a story worthy of remembering and its a shame it
was so obscenely difficult to find.
- "The Ethical Equations", Murray Leinster (Astounding,
Leinster has two stories nominated from the same year, and they're
both about first contact. It's hard to compete with the eponymous
first contact story listed above, which is more focused and, with hindsight, a classic.
This one seems to anticipate a little bit of Godwin's
"The Cold Equations", which didn't appear until 1954. An object
has been found hurtling towards Earth, and the powers-that-be
are obligated to send out its discoverer as the head of a team
to take a look, even though he's not part of the old-boy network. They assume its just a rock.
As it turns out, the object is really an alien artifact, consisting
primarily of element isotopes not found on Earth, which will make everyone rich when they get it back home.
But the "ethical equations" of whether it really belongs to them come into
play and things don't work out as planned. The equations are referred
to several times but never really explicitly stated, nor does he
say much about their origin or why they're so ingrained in the
crew. The story would've basically been the same without mentioning any equations at all,
and while the scenario may have been thought-provoking
or groundbreaking in 1945, it doesn't hold up particularly well
- "What You Need", Lewis Padgett (Astounding,
Something about this story rang a bell, but I don't think I'd ever read it before. There's a shop that advertises in the window "We have what you need." The proprietor meets a very nosy customer who is fascinated by what the shop is really selling, which turns out to be things that help the customers get past some sort of personal problem or crisis. The shop owner can see into the future via some invention, and therefore knows in advance what the customer will need to survive. Of course the customer gets greedy and wants the machine for his own ends, but the owner sees this in advance and gives him something that ends up killing him, thereby saving the owner's life. No science involved in this story, but so what? The whole "greater good" thing has been done to death, but who cares? Just a nice, tight no-frills yarn that gets my vote in this group.